Physical hydraulic models can be constructed from various materials (concrete, wood, plastics, fiber-glass …), in various scales (from 1:1 to 1:100 and more), they can be vertically distorted (i.e. vertical scale is different from horizontal scale) or not, they can have fixed or movable bed.
Each physical hydraulic model has to confirm to requirements of similarity laws, which in general include similarity of geometry (length, area, volume dimensions), kinematic similarity (time, velocity), and dynamic similarity (force, mass). In most cases hydraulic studies employ Froude’s law (for free-surface flows) and Reynolds’ law (flow under pressure in pipes, flow with large velocity etc.)
EXAMPLES (some of our recent studies):
– cofferdam (during construction of a hydropower plant dam)
– radial gate