Both physical and numerical models have to be calibrated to ensure their accuracy. In most cases the calibration requires measured values of water flow discharges and water levels. In some cases, however, some other parameters have to be measured as well, e.g. suspended particles (for simulations of sediment transport) or water temperature profiles (for simulations of heat transfer or transport of polutants).
– levelling: along crests of dykes, river banks and other locations of potential overflow during high-water events
– water level measurements: continuous with probes, and manual (of great value especially at flood events)
– measurements of river temperature profiles: especially in very cold or very hot days